LITEM-SMART-BIS & DOS Joint Research Seminar: Digital Transformation

The DOS Research Centre is delighted to announce the virtual joint research event by LITEM, SMART-BIS, University Paris Saclay and DOS, Royal Holloway University of London on the theme – Digital Transformation. This event will consist of 4 insightful presentations covering various aspects of digital transformation, from understanding organisational digital transformation to exploring the impact on trust and effect of AI adoption by the public sector. Join us to engage in this exciting event and be inspired!


Welcome: Dr. Anuragini Shirish, LITEM & Prof. Niki Panteli, DOS

Session Facilitators: Jan Weber, Phd/RHUL & Anaya Kumar, Phd/LITEM

Time: 1-3pm, Wednesday 30th March
Livestreaming link: Please contact if you want to join this event.

Dr Najmeh Hafezieh (DOS)
Title: Adopting a ‘Search’ Perspective in Exploration of How Organisations Transform Digitally


As new forms of digital technologies continue to proliferate, Information Systems (IS) scholars argue that we are witnessing a paradigmatic shift in the nature of technologies and their potential in profoundly changing organisations and ways of working. Such technological shifts have also given rise to consumerisation of IT and thus creating more endowed consumers with changing expectations and practices. The black-boxed nature of digital platforms and their algorithms have imposed challenges for scholars to understand these changes. In this paper, we draw on the notion of ‘search’ and its use in the organisation and management literature to propose a new analytical approach in studying digital transformations. Unlike the existing use of search in enhancing organisational performance or introducing new products, we use search as an approach that organisations renew their offerings, processes and practices in redefining their value proposition. Through different reconfigurations of material enactments, search becomes the underlying logic of organising and the centralised control shifts to a de-centralised autonomy, which facilitates the ongoing adaptations of practices as organisations transform digitally.


Najmeh hafezieh is a Lecturer in Digital Innovation and Analytics at Royal Holloway University of London. Najmeh holds a PhD in Management from the University of Edinburgh and her main research interests are related to the dynamics of organisational digital transformation, changing nature of work, and digital innovation. Her current research is focused on the digitalisation of professions and occupations, the dynamics of AI agents and knowledge workers pairing, and the role of Gartner Hype Cycles in productisation of expectations in digital economy. Najmeh has presented and published her work in top Information Systems (IS) and Management conferences and currently is collaborating with colleagues in the UK, Australia, and Ireland.

Prof Mak Lycett (DOS)
Title: Digital Innovation in the Music Industry


The music industry is a prime example of digital disruption and transformation at work. The transition of physical product (e.g., CDs, DVDs, vinyl) to digital streaming is the most visible and researched aspect of disruption to-date, but this is only the tip of the iceberg: Digital has impacted the supply/production network at every stage – from how and where music is produced, through how it is distributed to changes in the way it is consumed. There are three particular outcomes of digital transformation to-date that exist is some tension however. First, and most obviously, there have been significant changes in the way that we consume music. Second, there has been significant industry restructuring as traditional players (e.g., record companies, publishing houses) have responded to market changes and defended their position in doing so. Third, the production pipeline has become increasingly ‘democratised’ as technology and techniques that were once the preserve of specialists have increasingly become available to the mainstream. Arguably, these changes have not benefited music creators as intended as the fruits of democratisation have been hampered by conservatism in industry restructuring which – limiting the return from streaming and placing more ‘business’ responsibility on music creators. Digital disruption of the industry continues at pace however, with digital platforms continuing to proliferate, (newer) technologies such as AI and blockchain making inroads and new business models emerging. In this context, the purpose of this talk is to examine the challenges of disruption/transformation, its future directions and the opportunities for (collaborative) research in an exciting and vibrant domain.


Mark Lycett is Professor of Digital Innovation at Royal Holloway, University of London. His current research examines how novel technologies and work practices enable the creation and adoption of new business, technological and service delivery models alongside the new forms of value that may result from that. Mark has worked across many domains, from financial services to transportation, but his current (project) work is centred on the creative industries, applying his research interests in the context of immersive technology (e.g., mixed reality).

Aside from project work, he has a particular personal interest in the music industry, which is a prime example of the (disruptive) impact of digital technology. Mark has published his work in a number of leading journals and conferences and is engaged in ongoing research with a number of organisations. Prior to returning to education, he spent a number of years in industry, primarily in project management and consulting.

Prof Saïd Assar and Doctoral Student Taoufik El Oualidi (LITEM – SMART-BIS)
Title: Exploring explainability effect on trust and adoption in AI endeavors Abstract: Companies’ investment in new AI systems has seen recently a strong and constant progression. However, except for the GAFAM, the use of AI is still marginal at this stage, and seems to spark cautiousness and apprehension. A potential reason for this hesitation may be linked to a lack of trust. The goal of this research project is to explore the effects of explainability on trust in new AI-based digital systems and, ultimately, on usage and adoption. More precisely, in the perspective of an industrialized use of AI, we would like to study the role of explainability for stakeholders in the decision-making process as well as in value creation.


Saïd Assar is a professor in MIS. His research interests are related to IT usage and IS design in general, with a specific focus on Enterprise Architecture, Blockchain in Supply Chain, AI and trust. He is on the editorial board for many academic journals e.g. EMISA, SIM, IJEIS.

Taoufik El Oualidi is a PhD student at IMTBS/Paris Saclay University. His research subject is related to AI usage and the potential impact of explainability. He is an IT manager at La Poste Groupe, where AI techniques are being deployed.

Doctoral Student-Aurelie Roland (LITEM)
Title : The challenges of AI adoption by the public sector in France


Many challenges push on the public sector to provide ever better services and better protection to citizens, with increasingly scarce resources. At the same time, the deployment of digital innovations in all types of organizations is accelerating. However, Artificial Intelligence (AI) large-scale deployment, seems longer and more complicated than expected. Our research project aims to understand enablers and inhibitors to the diffusion of AI in the public services, thanks to several case studies in the French public sector and innovation management research.


Aurélie Simard is a Ph.D. student in management sciences at the Laboratoire d’innovation, de technologies, d’économie et de Gestion (LITEM), Doctoral School of Human and Social Sciences (SHS) of the University of Paris Saclay. She works under a research contract sponsored by (CIFRE) La Javaness, a start-up that designs and deploys AI software. She is currently being supervised by Prof. Cedric Gossart, co-director of LITEM.

Overlit: Digital architectures of visibility

The DOS Research Centre is delighted to invite you to a public seminar given by our CBS partner, Prof. Mikkel Flyverbom. The event is organised by the DOS cluster of Digital Inequality, Ethics and Cyberactivism.

Speaker: Prof. Mikkel Flyverbom at Copenhagen Business School
Time: 2-4pm, Wednesday 2nd March
Venue: Shilling Lecture Theatre
Livestreaming link: Please contact if you want to join this event.

Overlit: Digital architectures of visibility
(forthcoming in special section of Organization Theory, along with essays by Michael Power and Shoshana Zuboff)


Despite the ubiquity of digital technologies, data-driven approaches and algorithms, organization theory so far only engages with these developments in limited ways. A deeper engagement with the organizational ramifications of a digital, datafied world is urgently needed and must start from mappings of the phenomenon and the development of better theoretical vocabularies that can guide future research. Complementing the essays by Zuboff and Power in this exchange, my essay suggests a research agenda based on how digital technologies, data and algorithms impact and shape our lives in and around organizations by making us visible in novel ways. I unpack the technological and operational underpinnings of this phenomenon in two steps. The first is a broad conceptualization of the overall shape of what I term ‘digital architectures’. The second is a more granular theorization of how data-driven, algorithmic approaches make the ‘management of visibilities’ a central concern for humans, organizations and societies, as well as some reflections on possible responses to these developments. Taken together, these discussions highlight how digital ubiquity calls for novel theoretical perspectives and research avenues for organization theory to explore.

What is Theory and What is For?

The Digital Organisation and Society (DOS) Research Centre is delighted to welcome Professor Carol Saunders, Ph.D., for its upcoming distinguished speaker event.

Format: Virtual via Zoom. Please contact if you want to join this event.

25 February 2022 13:00-15:00 GMT

Carol Saunders is an Extraordinary Professor at the University of Pretoria and Professor Emerita at the University of Central Florida. Carol has received the LEO award in the Information Systems (IS) discipline and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Organization Communication and Information Systems (OCIS) Division of the Academy of Management. She also is an Association for Information Systems (AIS) Fellow and a Schoeller Senior Fellow. She served on a number of editorial boards, including a three-year term as Editor-in-Chief of MIS Quarterly. She was the General Conference Chair of ICIS 1999, Program Co-chair of AMCIS 2015, and AIS Vice President of Publications from 2016-2019. She helped found the OCIS (now Communication, Digital Technology and Organization) division of the Academy of Management and served as its program chair and division chair. She was the Distinguished Fulbright Scholar at the Wirtschafts Universitaet – Wien (WU) in Austria and earlier held a Professional Fulbright with the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. She has held research chairs in Germany, New Zealand, Singapore, and the Netherlands. Her research is published in top-ranked Management, IS, Computer Science and Communication journals.

DOS Cybersecurity, Design and Human Behaviour Cluster Event

Dr. Nisreen Ameen and Dr. Elizabeth Quaglia are pleased to invite you to the next DOS cluster event with our Keynote Speakers, Professor Michelle Carter, and Dr. Maryam Mehrnezhaded.

Format: Virtual via Zoom. Please contact if you want to join this event.

18 February 2022 16:00 GMT

Professor Michelle Carter

Ethical Issues in the Age of Big Data’ will summarise how technological changes allowing data to be captured, transmitted, stored, and analysed at unprecedented levels have created opportunities and ethical concerns – raising questions in several areas to promote dialogue in the information systems discipline about using big data analytics responsibly.

Dr Maryam Mehrnezhad

‘Caring for Intimate Data in Fertility Technologies’ explores the privacy risks that can originate from the mismanagement and misuse of intimate data in fertility technologies, evaluating the privacy of top ‘fertility apps’ through their privacy notices and tracking practices using the GDPR framework and argue how the current practices would put users at serious risks.

Leading Remote & Hybrid Work

We are delighted to announce that the Digital Organisation and Society (DOS) research cluster on ‘Digital Work and Organisation’ is hosting an Industry-Academia virtual event on Tuesday 8th February 2022, 9:00 to 10:30am on ‘Leading Remote and Hybrid Work’.

Format: Virtual via Zoom (link below). Please contact if you want to join this event.

8 February 2022 09:00 – 10:30 GMT (UK time)

In this event researchers in the area of remote and hybrid work will be presenting their most recent work on the topic whilst a panel of industry experts will be sharing their own experiences in this area and providing a commentary on the direction of research.


09:00amWelcome from Prof Niki Panteli
09:10-9:50amScholarly Panel (Facilitated by Dr Irene Yu)
09:10amDr Petros Chamakiotis (ESCP, Madrid) – 10 mins presentation + 10 mins Q&A
09:30amDr Blooma John (University of Canberra, Australia) – 10 mins presentation + 10 mins Q&A
09:50am9:50 am: Industry Panel (Facilitated by Prof Niki Panteli)
10:10amAudience Q&A – Discussion (20  minutes)

Following research presentations, the industry panellists will be asked to share their own views on remote/hybrid work, challenges faces and how to resolve them.

Abstracts & Panellists Biographies:

Scholarly Academic Panel

Dr Petros ChamakiotisTime to reimagine virtual team leadership post Covid-19


The dramatic surge of interest in FinTech over the past few years has highlighted the need for a better Although virtual teams have been around for over two decades, the recent pandemic has given rise to new types of virtual teams which, despite their similarities with earlier virtual teams pre-pandemic, have significant differences. This means that leadership may be different too in this context. Consequently, drawing on recent research, the objectives of this presentation are to explore: (a) how these newly emerged virtual teams differ for previous ones; (b) what we can take away from existing literature on leadership in virtual teams pre-pandemic that may still be relevant; and (c) what is left to be studied to promote academic knowledge and provide further guidance for practitioners. 


Dr Petros Chamakiotis is an Associate Professor of Management at ESCP Business School in Madrid, Spain, where he is also the Scientific Director of the MSc in Digital Project Management & Consulting. He is also affiliated with the Digital Futures at Work Research Centre in the UK. Petros is interested in the management of technology-mediated forms of work (e.g., hybrid working, virtual teams, digital platforms), and he publishes his work mainly in IS and management journals, as well as in practitioner outlets. Between 2018 and 2021, he served as the Chair of the IFIP Working Group 9.5 on ‘Our Digital Lives’ and he currently serves as an Associate Editor for the Information Systems Journal.

Dr Blooma John (University of Canberra)Leading the Digital Workplace Transformation during a pandemic


Digital workplace transformation has been through a huge acceleration due to the enforced remote work caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result, knowledge-based organisations had to swiftly use digital technologies to transform their workplaces from the traditional office environment to Work from Home (WFH) or hybrid workplace model. In the hybrid workplace model, some employees return to their workplace and others continue to work from home, though variations exist within this model. In this context, leadership has been identified as critical in the success of the workplace transformation in the post Covid-19 context. Today, as we move towards the new hybrid work environment, there is a need to understand the emerging and successful workplace leadership practices to keep both employees and clients engaged with business activities. The study presented here draws on empirical data collected from Microsoft ANZ corporation to explore how leaders in the organisation develop engagement with employees and clients when a hybrid workplace model is in operation.

Project Partners: Prof Niki Panteli and Microsoft ANZ


Dr Blooma John is an Assistant Professor of Information Systems at University of Canberra, Australia. She serves as the president of Association for Information Systems Special Interest Group in Education. She won the RMIT award for excellence in learning and teaching in 2015 and commendation for outstanding contribution to student learning in 2021. Her research interests are in social informatics, digital transformation, design science research and educational technologies. She has published her work in various IS journals and conferences. She currently serves as an Associate Editor for the Communications of the Association for Information Systems Journal.

Industry Panel:

Ms Pip Arthur – Modern work business group leader, Microsoft ANZ

Dr Penny Pullan – Making Projects Work Ltd

Dr Penny Pullan is a renowned expert in Virtual and Hybrid Leadership. She’s the author of the bestseller and CEO Today Top 5 book for lockdown: ‘Virtual Leadership: Practical Strategies for Success with Remote or Hybrid Work and Teams’. Penny works with leaders and teams who are grappling with the challenges of our remote and hybrid world, to enhance their collaboration and effectiveness. Over the last twenty years, Penny has built and rolled out her Virtual Leadership model, facilitation tools and techniques, with companies such as Robert Half, AstraZeneca and the UK Government. Her virtual experience began when she worked for Mars Incorporated, running a global programme despite the flight bans after 9/11. Penny’s other books include ‘Making Workshops Work: Creative collaboration for our time’ and she is the co-author of ‘Managing Successful Programmes’.

Royal Holloway – Taipei Tech Research Seminar

DOS Research Centre is delighted to support a joint research seminar with National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech).

19 January 2022 10:00 – 12:00 GMT (18:00 – 20:00 Taipei time)


  • Dr. Abdul Kader Al Jandali (Royal Holloway)
  • Dr. Mu-En Wu (Taipei Tech)
  • Dr. Wesley Yuen & Prof. Yu-Lun Liu (Royal Holloway & Taipei Tech)
  • Dr. Wei-Lun Chang (Taipei Tech)
  • Organized by Prof Hari Harindranath (Royal Holloway) & Prof Jung-Fa Tsai (Taipei Tech)


Time Topic Speaker
09:55 (17:55)  Seminar OpeningProf Jung-Fa Tsai & Dr Nisreen Ameen (DOS Co-Director)
10:00 (18:00)  FinTech Innovations: A Review of the Recent Developments and Prospects Q & ADr. Abdulkader Aljandali
10:30 (18:30)  A Quantitative Model for Option Sell-Side Trading with Stop-Loss Mechanism by Using Random Forest Q & ADr. Mu-En Wu
11:00 (19:00)  The taxonomic fit and thematic fit of brand extension and tourist’s inspiration: The moderation effects of brand familiarity and implicit beliefs Q & ADr. Wesley Yuen & Dr. Yu-Lun Liu
11:30 (19:30)  Exploring Service Journey by AI Chatbots for Customer Experience Q & ADr. Wei-Lun Chang
12:00 (20:00)  Closing RemarksNisreen & Jung-Fa

Further details

Dr Abdul Kader Al Jandali
Position: Senior Lecturer in Financial Management
Topic: FinTech Innovations: A Review of the Recent Developments and Prospects

Research Areas:

  • Fintech and Financial inclusion
  • ESG investing
  • Sustainable Finance


The dramatic surge of interest in FinTech over the past few years has highlighted the need for a better understanding of the value of technological innovations. In line with this reasoning FinTech has emerged as a mechanism that enables banking and nonbanking institutions to cut their costs, to enhance the quality of their services and to create a much more resilient and diverse financial environment. This FinTech development, which is supported by Artificial intelligence (Ai) and automation allows FinTech adopters to enter different segments of the financial services industry. However,despite the broad application of FinTech, little academic research has explored the development of this new wave of technological innovations. Therefore, our study aims to fill this gap in the literature and examines the recent developments in selected Fintech technologies including peer-to-peer financing, digital-only banks, machine learning and Ai, Blockchain, Robo-advice, InsurTech and RegTech. The paper also reviews the FinTech ecosystem including the impact of FinTech business models and their related, regulatory and non-regulatory, challenges.


Dr Aljandali is a Senior Lecturer in Financial Management and Financial Technologies at Royal Holloway University of London. Authority in Quantitative Research with published output in Financial Modelling, Foreign exchange Forecasting, Economic Modelling and Multivariate Methods. Current research includes studies on the role FinTech as a key driver for financial inclusion with a focus on emerging markets. Data Analytics passionate with knowledge of Python, Tenserflow, GitHub, Colab, Google Hub and AWS. Specialist knowledge and expertise in SPSS, SAS and EViews computer packages.

Dr. Mu-En Wu
Position: Associate Professor, Department of Information and Finance Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
Topic: A Quantitative Model for Option Sell-Side Trading with Stop-Loss Mechanism by Using Random Forest

Research Areas:

  • Money management
  • Financial data analysis
  • Information theory
  • Cryptography


Option trading is increasingly being used for hedging and speculation; however, inherent risk, makes money management an important issue in controlling profits and losses. In this study, we sought to quantify the risk associated with options by constructing a sell-side trading strategy with a mechanism aimed at predicting the win-rate via statistical analysis and the random forest algorithm. AUC-ROC curves verified the effectiveness of our random forest predictive model with a greater than 75 percent likelihood of correctly identifying a trade. In experiments, our random forest predictive model outperformed the statistical predictive model, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of our trading strategy with stop-loss mechanism in controlling risk in options trading.


Mu-En Wu is an Associate Professor at Department of Information and Finance Management at National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan. Dr. Wu received his Ph.D. degree with major in computer science from National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, in 2009. After that, he joined Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica at Taipei City, Taiwan as a postdoctoral fellow during 2009~2014. During February 2014 to July 2017, he served as an assistant professor of Department of Mathematics at Soochow University. He has a wide variety of research interests covering cryptography, information theory, prediction market, money management, and financial data analysis. He has published more than 100 research papers in referred journals and international conferences.

Dr. Wesley Yuen & Dr. Yu-Lun Liu
Position: Wesley Yuen: Lecturer in Marketing, Department of Marketing, Royal Holloway, University of London; Yu-Lun Liu: Assistant Professor of Marketing, Department of Business Management, National Taipei University of Technology
Topic: The taxonomic fit and thematic fit of brand extension and tourist’s inspiration: The moderation effects of brand familiarity and implicit beliefs

Research Areas:

  • Brand extension
  • Consumer inspiration
  • Tourism Marketing


The significant growth in the number of overseas travelers has encouraged many multinational brands to enter and seek to dominate the international tourist market. Brand extension (BE) has been used to introduce new product lines to an existing and/or new market. Previous research suggests that the success of BE is determined by the similarity between the parent brand and the expended product line(s) (i.e. fit). Such BE fit can be created taxonomically or thematically. While marketers are engaging in utilizing BE fit strategies to improve the adoption and purchase intentions of tourists/consumers towards BE product(s), there have also been many unsuccessful BE examples. The research finds initial evidence that tourists’ adoption of the BE product is determined by discovering their inspirations about the level of BE fit. That is, the BE fit needs to be able to appropriately trigger the tourists’ interest in the BE product lines in order to encourage their willingness to purchase/adopt the brand-extended product/service. Furthermore, this effect of BE fit on tourist (consumer) inspiration is moderated by an individual’s level of familiarity with the parent brand and their implicit beliefs. The findings suggest marketing literature and practitioners a new phenomenon and antecedent of BE on inspiration.


Yu-Lun Liu is an Assistant Professor of marketing at National Taipei University of Technology. He holds a PhD in Business and Management, and an MBA in Commerce Automation and Management. Yu-Lun obtained years of work experience in an IT company as a software engineer. He has a particular interest in information systems and technology management. He also has interest in online consumer psychology and consumer behavior.

Wesley Yuen is a lecturer in Marketing at Royal Holloway, University of London. Wesley obtained his fully-funded Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) PhD in Marketing at the Alliance Manchester Business School. His main research areas are brand management, tourism marketing and consumer psychology (mainly in personality, cognition and emotion). Wesley has published in internationally-recognized journals, such as Journal of Business Research, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Resources, Conservation & Recycling and Journal of Marketing Communications.

Dr. Wei-Lun Chang
Position: Associate Professor, Department of Business Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
Topic: Exploring Service Journey by AI Chatbots for Customer Experience

Research Areas:

  • Data/Text Mining
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Digital Technology and Application
  • Service Science


The emergence of digital age brings AI robots (chatbots) for intelligent interaction and conversation. The functions of AI chatbots cover utilitarian to entertainment that may change physical or online shopping behavior. The COVID-19 pandemic fosters the usage of chatbots. However, the impact of AI chatbots as medium on customer experience and journey still lacks and needs further investigation. This research uses design science to create a customer service journey with three stages (recognition, consideration, and decision) to integrate chatbots to evaluate demands and behavior. The designed AI chatbot contains rule-based and case-based systems. The conversations will be analyzed by sentiment analysis to support information and emotional responses. We also investigate how to furnish appropriate service and guide customers from recognition to decision via interactive chatbot. We also aim to provide clues to help companies implement AI chatbots to create best interactive experience. The outcomes showed customer service journey not only enhance current services but explore unfulfilled customer needs. The results also revealed the direction of conversational intelligent chatbots and optimization of customer service journey.


Wei-Lun Chang, is an Associate Professor of the Department of Business Management in the National Taipei University of Technology. He completed his PhD at the Department of Management Information Systems at National Chengchi University. His research areas include social media, sentiment and technology in education. He has been published in international journals with various topics, such as Communications of the ACM, Journal of Information Science, Information Systems Frontiers, Internet Research, European Journal of Operational Research, Transportation Research Part E, Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, and Electronic Commerce Research and Applications.

Cybersecurity, Design And Human Behaviour

We are pleased to invite you to the virtual event hosted by the DOS research cluster on Cyber Security, Design and Human Behaviour.

14 January 2022 10:00 – 11:00 GMT

In this event, we aim to provide information on the available funding opportunities for interdisciplinary research around (but not limited to) the following themes:

  • Understanding security needs in a context
  • Security and consumption of wearable technologies
  • Security, privacy, ethics and emotions
  • Security narratives and visualisation


10:00 – Welcome from Nisreen and Liz

10:10 – A talk by Marcela Acuna Rivera on interdisciplinary funding possibilities in the research areas relevant to the cluster

10:30 – Q&A and Discussion In the discussion part, we encourage you to share, if possible, your experience with interdisciplinary funding (successes, hurdles, advice..).

Book Launch ‘ Research Methods for Digital Work and Organization’

Join the editors and contributors to this new book as they discuss challenges and future developments in researching digital work.

1 December 2021 16:00 – 18:00 GMT

Digital work is organizationally, interpretively, spatially and temporally complex. An array of innovative methodologies have begun to emerge to capture these activities, whether through re-purposing existing tools, devising entirely novel methods or mixing old and new. This new book, published by Oxford University Press, brings together some of these techniques in one volume as a sourcebook for management, business, organizational and work researchers pursuing projects in this field. This diverse collection of methods is illustrated through contributors’ reflexive accounts of real world research projects which outline debates in the field, confront the challenges such methods may raise and make recommendations for research practice. At the launch event, contributors will discuss the opportunities and challenges of researching digital work, address any queries from the audience and explore further methodological developments.

When Women Propose to Men: A Short Animation Launch

The MANgagement Ring Project is proud to present a second animation on what happens when women propose to men.

9 December 2021 14:30 – 15:30 GMT

The MANgagement Ring Project is proud to present a second animation on what happens when women ask their male partners to marry them. At our launch event, Dr. Daniela Pirani, Dr. Vera Hoelscher and Dr. Ratna Khanijou will share what they found out about whether all these proposals happened on a leap day, emotional displays, and how the institution of marriage might be changing in the face of new traditions. Join the discussion on 9 December 2021 at 2:30 pm on Microsoft Teams and bring some popcorn!

Consumer interactions with artificial intelligence – enabled chatbots in retail shopping experiences

By Xiaoxia Cao

Supervisors:   Dr Nisreen Ameen and Professor Chris Hackley
Royal Holloway, University of London

Companies are increasingly relying on artificial intelligence to automate marketing tasks. For example, chatbots are frequently mentioned to be beneficial for the retail industry regarding customer service (about 95%), sales/marketing (about 55%), and order processing (about 48%) (Rese, Ganster and Baier, 2020). “A chatbot is software that simulates human-like conversations with users via text messages on chat” (, 2021). There are more than 300,000 active chatbots integrated on Facebook Messenger offering customer services (Nealon, 2018). The chatbots market is predicted to reach USD 7.5 billion by 2024 (Peart, 2020). Besides, more than 70% of chatbot conversations are expected to be with retail chatbots by 2023 (Dilmegani, 2020). It is undeniable that the interactions between consumers and AI-enabled chatbots in the retail industry were accessible and convenient, and these interactions will continue to grow in the future. Thus, we need to figure out what consumers gained from previous experiences with AI-enabled chatbots in the retail industry, and what is required further for the long-term relationship between them. Chatbots, once considered as “virtual idiot”, have gained popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic because of their immediacy (Miller, 2020; Ward, 2021). Consumers also became more tolerant of chatbots usage during 2020 (Ward, 2021). Thus, are there other issues we also need to consider when building such a long-term relationship? For example, emotions, privacy, and security issues.

Consumers’ perceptions of retail environments and their shopping behaviour outcomes have been significantly influenced by emotions (Herter, dos Santos and Pinto, 2014). As artificial intelligence technologies improve, digital agents transformed from merely providing information to being emotionally intelligent (Gelbrich, Hagel and Orsingher, 2021). However, the current research on the effects of consumers’ emotions in the interaction with AI-enabled chatbots in retail industry has not been done in depth. It is also unclear that whether the effects of emotions from other digital agents are similar to these AI-enabled chatbots because of their specific functions in the retail industry. Meanwhile, as Mogilner, Kamvar and Asker (2011) examined that participants’ perceptions of positive emotions, such as happiness, change with age. Thus, users of different ages and cultures may interact differently with AI-enabled chatbots.

The combination of artificial intelligence and big data gives retailers the capability to collect and store customer data from multichannel, which can be used to gain insights, and improve their products and customer experiences. While customers are willing to share their personal information in exchange for personalised services, they also express concerns about privacy (Davenport et al., 2020; Okazaki et al., 2020). Another factor that affects consumers’ perception of the online retailing environment is security, which mainly refers to online transactions (Mukherjee and Nath, 2007). Even though the retailers adhere technological solutions and legal guidelines to guarantee security and privacy. Consumers’ perceptions of privacy violations also rely on their knowledge and control (Wang, et al., 2020). In the face of so many ambiguous warnings and complicated advice, security awareness may be ineffective (Bada, Sasse and Nurse, 2019).

In conclusion, this research aims to fill the gap in knowledge on the long-term relationship between AI-enabled chatbots and consumers in the retail industry, and to provide a better understanding of concepts such as emotions, privacy and security in human-chatbots interactions. At present, this research is still at the early stage of the literature review, aims to get a solid understanding of all these concepts related to human-chatbots interactions. I am currently looking for opportunities to work with companies in this area or discuss with academics in the field.


Xiaoxia Cao
PhD student in Management
MSc International Management (Marketing)
Bachelor of Economics


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Davenport, T., Guha, A., Grewal, D. and Bressgott, T. (2020) ‘How artificial intelligence will change the future of marketing’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48, pp. 24-42. Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2021).

Dilmegani, C. (2020) 85 + Chabot / Conversational AI Statistics: Market Size, Adoption. Available at: (Accessed: 6 October 2021).

Gelbrich, K., Hagel, J. and Orsingher, C. (2021) ‘Emotional support from a digital assistant in technology-mediated services: Effects on customer satisfaction and behavioral persistence’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 38, pp. 176-193. Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2021).

Herter, M. M., dos Santos, C. P. and Pinto, D. C. (2014) ‘“Man, I shop like a woman!” The effects of gender and emotions on consumer shopping behaviour outcomes’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 42 (9), pp. 780-804. Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2021).

Miller, E. (2020) How has COVID-19 Accelerated Trends in Customer Service? Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2021).

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Mukherjee, A. and Nath, P. (2007) ‘Role of electronic trust in online retailing: A re-examination of the commitment-trust theory’, European Journal of Marketing, 41 (9-10), pp. 1173-1202. Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2021).

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